Thursday, June 11, 2020
Digital Television Migration in Kenya (Essay Sample) Content: Digital Television Migration in KenyaStudents nameInstitutionDigital Television Migration in KenyaIntroduction107th Congress, 2nd Session paper indicate that for a long period of time, television stations have only used the analogue network to raise their signals. With innovation, emergent of digital broadcasting have provided greater efficiency in utilizing the Kenyans electromagnetic spectrum, making it viable enough for Kenyans switch from analogue to digital (Flint, 2001). This process of electronically transforming to digital services is viewed to provide a greater positive impact on the Kenyan development in all aspects from social, political, and religious context (Rao, 2012).PurposeThis paper is to provide critical analysis on the preliminary stages, current situation of development of the digital migration, its implication on technology arena, and various obstacles facing its development of this noble technology. The Digital Television Migration in KenyaResea rch also explores extensively on the various strategies of exploring the digital migration in Kenya.Basis of ResearchAccording to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) agreement almost all countries are scheduled to reach the digital standard by June 17, 2015. Relevant reports indicate that in Africa only Mauritius had completely embraced the practice to provide its citizens with the digital benefits (Samuel, 2009). Kenya being the center for East and central Africa development projects, has launched its ambition to meet the digital target of 2015 According to the Kenyans information technology secretary, this technology will provide a universal access to the basic digital and internet information to millions of Kenyans (Samuel, 2009).Pro: Digital Migration in KenyaThe digital migration is expected to provide enormous benefits to all Kenyans. The benefits include; efficient utilization of the spectrum, studies indicate that digital signals usually takes relatively less ban dwidth as opposed to analogue signals, this will enable the country to constructively use the extra spectrum to run other mobile industries (Great Britain, 2009; Media Development and Diversity Bill, 2002). Second advantage is quality television, digital network usually provide a superior television interface, improved picture, and better sound signals (Media bill, 2002). The digital migration is also expected to provide an opportunity for introduction of relatively higher televisions versions which could not be introduced by the analogue versions (Great Britain, 2009). Moreover, the digital migration in Kenya is expected to provide a host of several business opportunities for the ICT sector in the country thus improve the business models in the country (FCC, 2007). Finally, the digital migration will enormously improve the social and educational background of majority of Kenyans as it will open the world arena to all Kenyans (Samuel, 2009).Challenges to the Adoption of the Digital Television TechnologyIt is evidently clear that Kenya missed to meat the deadline that was initially set in June 2012 to meet the installation of the digital television. AfriMAP, OSIEA, OSMP and UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology 2006, reports indicate that the transformation is coupled with the several challenges, first is the relatively high cost of digital decoder boxes required to set the station. Second is the financially weak broadcast station which cannot manage to air for the citizens channels using their own licenses and lastly is the political interference that have misguided the migration agenda(UK DCMSBPD, 2006).ConclusionFor Kenya to achieve the use of digital television in 2015, several strategies must be in place. These includes; campaigning to raise public awareness on the benefits of digital television migration, preparer a proper plan before migration and set up a strong technological man-power to carry out the installation exercise.References107th C ongress, 2nd Session, Consumer Broadband, and Digital Television Promotion Bill [Accessed on 9 Nov 2013 from /docs/cbdtpa/ hollings.s2048.032102.htmAfriMAP, OSIEA, OSMP Kenya broadcasting survey report [Accessed on 9 Nov 2013 From books.google.com/books?isbn=1920489207HYPERLINK "/search?sa=Gtbm=bkstbm=bksq=inauthor:%22Great+Britain:+Parliament:+House+of+Lords:+Select+Committee+on+Communications%22ei=FDV-UrbdBOeQ7AaExoHADAved=0CE8Q9AgwBgbiw=1280bih=885dpr=1"Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: Select Committee on CommunicationsHYPER15 (2009) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ½ Digital switchover of television and radio in the United Kingdom: 2nd Report... [Accessed on 9 Nov 2013 from books.google.com/books?isbn=0108459780Flint, D, (2001) Opening the Door to the Digital Era - Regulating Australias Broadcast and New Media Industry of the Future&r... Digital Television Migration in Kenya Essay - 1650 Words Digital Television Migration in Kenya (Essay Sample) Content: Digital Television Migration in KenyaStudents nameInstitutionDigital Television Migration in KenyaIntroduction107th Congress, 2nd Session paper indicate that for a long period of time, television stations have only used the analogue network to raise their signals. With innovation, emergent of digital broadcasting have provided greater efficiency in utilizing the Kenyans electromagnetic spectrum, making it viable enough for Kenyans switch from analogue to digital (Flint, 2001). This process of electronically transforming to digital services is viewed to provide a greater positive impact on the Kenyan development in all aspects from social, political, and religious context (Rao, 2012).PurposeThis paper is to provide critical analysis on the preliminary stages, current situation of development of the digital migration, its implication on technology arena, and various obstacles facing its development of this noble technology. The Digital Television Migration in KenyaResea rch also explores extensively on the various strategies of exploring the digital migration in Kenya.Basis of ResearchAccording to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) agreement almost all countries are scheduled to reach the digital standard by June 17, 2015. Relevant reports indicate that in Africa only Mauritius had completely embraced the practice to provide its citizens with the digital benefits (Samuel, 2009). Kenya being the center for East and central Africa development projects, has launched its ambition to meet the digital target of 2015 According to the Kenyans information technology secretary, this technology will provide a universal access to the basic digital and internet information to millions of Kenyans (Samuel, 2009).Pro: Digital Migration in KenyaThe digital migration is expected to provide enormous benefits to all Kenyans. The benefits include; efficient utilization of the spectrum, studies indicate that digital signals usually takes relatively less ban dwidth as opposed to analogue signals, this will enable the country to constructively use the extra spectrum to run other mobile industries (Great Britain, 2009; Media Development and Diversity Bill, 2002). Second advantage is quality television, digital network usually provide a superior television interface, improved picture, and better sound signals (Media bill, 2002). The digital migration is also expected to provide an opportunity for introduction of relatively higher televisions versions which could not be introduced by the analogue versions (Great Britain, 2009). Moreover, the digital migration in Kenya is expected to provide a host of several business opportunities for the ICT sector in the country thus improve the business models in the country (FCC, 2007). Finally, the digital migration will enormously improve the social and educational background of majority of Kenyans as it will open the world arena to all Kenyans (Samuel, 2009).Challenges to the Adoption of the Digital Television TechnologyIt is evidently clear that Kenya missed to meat the deadline that was initially set in June 2012 to meet the installation of the digital television. AfriMAP, OSIEA, OSMP and UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology 2006, reports indicate that the transformation is coupled with the several challenges, first is the relatively high cost of digital decoder boxes required to set the station. Second is the financially weak broadcast station which cannot manage to air for the citizens channels using their own licenses and lastly is the political interference that have misguided the migration agenda(UK DCMSBPD, 2006).ConclusionFor Kenya to achieve the use of digital television in 2015, several strategies must be in place. These includes; campaigning to raise public awareness on the benefits of digital television migration, preparer a proper plan before migration and set up a strong technological man-power to carry out the installation exercise.References107th C ongress, 2nd Session, Consumer Broadband, and Digital Television Promotion Bill [Accessed on 9 Nov 2013 from /docs/cbdtpa/ hollings.s2048.032102.htmAfriMAP, OSIEA, OSMP Kenya broadcasting survey report [Accessed on 9 Nov 2013 From books.google.com/books?isbn=1920489207HYPERLINK "/search?sa=Gtbm=bkstbm=bksq=inauthor:%22Great+Britain:+Parliament:+House+of+Lords:+Select+Committee+on+Communications%22ei=FDV-UrbdBOeQ7AaExoHADAved=0CE8Q9AgwBgbiw=1280bih=885dpr=1"Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: Select Committee on CommunicationsHYPER15 (2009) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ½ Digital switchover of television and radio in the United Kingdom: 2nd Report... [Accessed on 9 Nov 2013 from books.google.com/books?isbn=0108459780Flint, D, (2001) Opening the Door to the Digital Era - Regulating Australias Broadcast and New Media Industry of the Future&r...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Sample details Pages: 21 Words: 6397 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Telecommunication Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Chapter 1 Introduction The project which we have chosen to do as our final year project for the under graduate program involves the characterization of micro strip patch antenna. In this project we have carried out simulations of different types of antennas, which include dipole, monopole and patch. The purpose of designing all of these is to gain knowledge and experience in the designing of antennas for different purposes by using commercially available CEM. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Micro Strip Antenna" essay for you Create order The frequency band, which we have chosen as our relevant band, is the GSM-900 band, which is of wide use in the cellular network. The purpose of choosing this band is to gain valuable knowledge of this frequency band. Antennas are a fundamental part of every system in which wireless or free space is the medium of communication. Basically, an antenna is a transducer and is designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves. It is a transducer as it converts radio frequency electrical currents into electromagnetic waves. Common applications of antennas include radio, television broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, wireless networks and radar. A detailed study of antennas is discussed in chapter two and chapter three of this report. The CEM softwares that we have used for the designing include XFDTDÃ ® provided by Remcom Inc. and CST Microwave StudioÃ ®, which is a full wave, 3-Dimensional, Electromagnetic simulation software and CST Microwave StudioÃ ®. XFDTDÃ ® utilizes a numerical electromagnetic code for antenna design, that is, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD). Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is a popular computational electrodynamics modeling technique. The first antenna structure modeled is the dipole. A dipole antenna consists of two conductors on the same axis with a source at the center. It is also modeled in XFDTDÃ ® by following the procedure provided by the software and mentioned in the Appendix. The results are verified by comparing with analytical papers of (lambda/2) dipole. After completing this, the next goal is to model the micro strip (patch) antenna which is one of the main focuses of this project. It comprises of a metallic patch bonded to a dielectric substrate with a metal layer bonded to the opposite side of the substrate forming a ground plane. This metal layer is very thin. Hence, it can be fabricated very easily using printed circuit techniques. Therefore, they are inexpensive to manu facture and are easily integrate able with microwave integrated circuits. The software modeling is carried out in XFDTDÃ ® and on CST Microwave StudioÃ ®. The verification of the results with the experimental results obtained leads to the final phase and the conclusion of the project. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this project is to gain knowledge and experience about computational electromagnetic, as it applies to antenna design. It was also our sole purpose to gain experience in fabrication and experimental characterization of micro strip patch antennas. To achieve these objectives we used two commercially available CEM softwares, XFDTDÃ ® and CST Microwave StudioÃ ®, to design a micro strip patch antenna for 900 MHz. We also gained experimental experience by characterizing the return loss of this patch antenna using the vector network analyzer. 1.2 Project Scope 1.2.1 Description We will study some basic types of antennas; extending basic knowledge of antenna t o complex antenna designs such as micro strip patch antennas and also modeled them on antenna design and simulation software. This report has been divided into a number of chapters each discussing a different stage of the project. They are briefly described below: Chapter 2 describes the fundamentals of antennas and thoroughly discusses the theory of fundamental parameters and quantities of antenna. In this chapter the basic concept of an antenna is discussed and its working is explained. Some critical performance parameters of antennas are also discussed. Finally, some common types of antennas are also discussed for understanding purposes. Chapter 3 discusses the important characteristics of antennas as radiators of electromagnetic energy. These characteristics are normally considered in the far field as the antenna pattern or radiation pattern of an antenna is the three-dimensional plot of its radiation at far field. It also discusses the types of antenna patterns in detail. Some important mathematical equations are also solved in this chapter for the better understanding of how an antenna works. Chapter 4 discusses in detail the modeling of the half wave dipole and micro strip patch antenna using XFDTDÃ ®. It describes the modeling of the antenna, the feeding, and the resultant plots obtained. Furthermore it concludes with comparison of the results obtained with the simulations already available in the software. Chapter 5 discusses the theory, calculations involved and the fabrication of the micro strip (patch) antenna in detail. The calculations for the dimensions of the rectangular patch in detail are in this chapter. Also, this chapter describes the results obtained through simulation of the model on the software CST Microwave StudioÃ ®. Chapter 6 discusses conclusions drawn from the whole project. Chapter 2 Antenna Fundamentals In this chapter, the basic concept of an antenna is discussed and its working is explained. Next, some critical performance parameters of antennas are discussed. Finally, some common types of antennas are introduced. The treatment for these is taken from the reference ,  and . 2.1 Introduction Antenna is a metallic structure designed for radiating and receiving electromagnetic energy. An antenna acts as a transitional structure between the guiding devices (e.g. waveguide, transmission line) and the free space. The official IEEE definition of an antenna as given by Stutzman and Thiele  is as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"That part of a transmitting or receiving system that is designed to radiate or receive electromagnetic wavesÃ¢â¬ . 2.2 How an Antenna radiates? In order to understand how an antenna radiates, we have to first know how radiation occurs. A conducting wire radiates because of time-varying current or an acceleration or deceleration of charge. If there is no motion of charges in a wire, no radiation will occur, since no flow of current oc curs. Radiation will not occur even if charges are moving with uniform or constant velocity along a straight wire. Also, charges moving with uniform velocity along a curved or bent wire will produce radiation. If charge is oscillating with time, then radiation will occur even along a straight wire as explained by Balanis . The radiation pattern from an antenna can be further understood by considering a voltage source connected to a two-conductor transmission line. When a sinusoidal voltage source is applied across the transmission line, an electric field is generated which is sinusoidal in nature. The bunching of the electric lines of force can indicate the magnitude of this electric field. The free electrons on the conductors are forcefully displaced by the electric lines of force and the motion of these charges causes the flow of current, which leads to the creation of a magnetic field. Due to time varying electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves are created wh ich travel between the conductors. When these waves approach open space, connecting the open ends of the electric lines forms free space waves. As the sinusoidal source continuously creates electric disturbance, electromagnetic waves are generated continuously and these travel through the transmission line, the antenna and are radiated into the free space. 2.3 Near and Far Field Regions The field patterns of an antenna, change with distance and are associated with two types of energy radiating and reactive energy. Hence, the space surrounding an antenna can be divided into three regions. Figure 2.1: Field regions around an antenna The three regions that are depicted in above figure are described as: 2.3.1 Reactive Near-Field Region: In this region the reactive field dominates. The reactive energy oscillates towards and away from the antenna, thus appearing as reactance. In this region, energy is stored and no energy is dissipated. The outermost boundary for this re gion is at a distance ? (2.1) where R1is the distance from antenna surface, D is the largest dimension of the antenna and ? is the wavelength. 2.3.2 Radiating Near-Field Region: This region also called Fresnel region lies between the reactive near-field region and the far field region. In this region, the angular field distribution is a function of the distance from the antenna. reactive fields are smaller in this field as compared to the reactive near-field region and the radiation fields dominate. The outermost boundary for this region is at a distance (2.2) where R2is the distance from the antenna surface. 2.3.3 Far-Field Region: The region beyond is the far field region also called Fraunhofer region. The angular field distribution is not dependent on the distance from the antenna in this region. In this region, the reactive fields are absent and only the radiation fields exist and the power density varies as the inverse square of the radial distance in th is region. 2.4 The Hertzian Dipole A hertzian dipole or infinitesimal dipole, which is a piece of straight wire whose length L and diameter are both very small, compared to one wavelength. A uniform current I is assumed to flow along its length. Although such a current element does not exist in real life, it serves as a building block from which the field of a practical antenna can be calculated (Sadiku ). Consider the hertzian dipole shown in figure. We assume that it is located at the origin of a coordinate system and that it carries a uniform current. i.e. I=I? cos?t. The retarded magnetic vector potential at the field point, due to dipole is given by (2.3) Where [I] is the retarded current given by (2.4) Where ?=?/u=2?/?, and u=1/ the current is said to be retarded at point under consideration because there is a propagation time delay r/u or phase delay. By substitution we may also write A in phasor form as t(2.5) Transforming this vector in Cart esian to spherical coordinates yields Where But (2.6) We find the E field using (2.7) (2.8) Where, A close observation of the field equations reveals that we have terms varying as The 1/ term is called the electrostatic field since it corresponds to the field of an electric dipole. This term dominates over other terms in a region very close to the hertzian dipole. The is called the inductive field, and it is predictable from the from the Biot Savart law. The term is important only at near field, that is, at distances close to the current element. The 1/r term is called the far field or radiation field because it is the only term that remains at the far zone, that is, at a point very far from the current element. Here, we are mainly concerned with the far field or radiation zone (?r1), where the terms in can be neglected in favor of the 1/r term. Thus at far field, (2.9) The radiation terms of and are in time phase and orthogonal just as the fields of a uniform plane wave. The near and far zone fields are determined respectively to be the in equalities We define the boundary between the near and far zones by the value of r given by . where d is the largest dimension of the antenna. The time average power density is obtained as ) (2.10) Substitution yields time average radiated power as But And hence above equation becomes If free space is the medium of propagation, ?=120 and (2.11) This power is equivalent to the power dissipated in a fictitious resistance by current That is, (2.12) Where is the root mean square value of I. From above equations we obtain Or (2.13) The resistance is a characteristic property of the hertzian dipole antenna and is called its radiation resistance. We observe that it requires antennas with large radiation resistances to deliver large amounts of power to space. The above equation for is for a hertzian dipole in free space. 2.5 Half Wave Dipole Antenna The Half Wave dipole is named after the fact that its length is half of the wavelength i.e. . It is excited through a thin wire fed at the midpoint by a voltage source connected to the antenna via a transmission line. The radiated electromagnetic field due to a dipole can be obtained if we consider it as a chain of hertzian dipoles (Sadiku ). ?/2 I z x y I Figure 2.3: Half Wave Dipole The magnetic Vector potential P due to length dl of the dipole carrying a phasor current is (2.14) We have assumed a sinusoidal current distribution because the current must vanish at the ends of the dipole. Also note that the actual current distribution on an antenna is not precisely known. It can be determined by using Maxwells equations subject to the boundary conditions on the antenna by a mathematically complex procedure. The sinusoidal current assumption approximates the distribution obtained by solving the boundary value problem and is commonly used. O Y X Z Figure 2.4. Magnetic field at point o If r ?, then Hence we can substitute in the denominator of the first equation where the magnitude of the distance is needed. In the numerator for the phase term, the difference between ? and ? is significant, so we will replace by . We maintain the cosine term in the exponent while neglecting it in the denominator because the exponent involves the phase constant while the denominator does not. So, (2.15) Using the following integrating equation, Applying this equation gives on (2.15) Since and the above equation becomes, Using identity = 2cos x, we obtain (2.16) We use in conjunction with the fact that to obtain electric and magnetic fields at far zone as (2.17) The radiation term of and are in time phase and orthogonal. We can obtain the time-average power density as (2.18) The time average radiated power can be determined as In the previous equations has been substituted assuming free space as t he medium of propagation. The last equation can be written as Changing the variables, and using partial fractions reduces the above equation to Replacing with in the first integrand with in the second results in (2.19) Solving the previous equation of yields value of . The radiation resistance for the half wave dipole antenna is readily obtained from the following equation and comes out to be. (2.20) Chapter 3 Antenna Characteristics In the previous chapter we have discussed the basics of antennas and the elementary types of antennas. Now we will discuss the important characteristics of antennas as radiators of electromagnetic energy. These characteristics are normally considered in the far field and are as follows. And have been treated from the references ,  and . 3.1 Antenna Patterns The Antenna Pattern or Radiation Pattern of an antenna is the three-dimensional plot of its radiation at far field. There are two types of Radiation Patterns of antennas. The Field and the Power Pattern. 3.1.1 Field Pattern When the amplitude of the E-field is plotted, it is called the Field Pattern or the Voltage Pattern. A three dimensional plot of an antenna pattern is avoided by plotting separately the normalized versus for a constant which is called an E-Plane pattern or vertical pattern and the normalized versus for called the H-plane pattern or horizontal pattern. The normalization of is with respect to the maximum value of the so that the maximum value of the normalized is unity as explained by Sadiku . For Example, for the hertzian Dipole, the normalized comes out to be, (3.1) Which is independent of From this equation we can obtain the E-plane pattern as the polar pattern of by varying from 0 to 180 degrees. This plot will be symmetric about the z-axis. For the H-plane pattern we set so that , which is a circle of radius 1. 3.1.2 Power Pattern When the square of the amplitude of E is plotted, it is called the power pattern. A plot of the time-average power, for a fixed distance r is the power pattern of the antenna. It is obtained by plotting separately versus for constant and versus for constant. The normalized power pattern for the hertzian dipole is obtained from the equation. (3.2) 3.2 Radiation Intensity The Radiation intensity of an antenna is defined as (3.3) Using the above equation, the total average power radiated can be expressed as (3.4) (3.5) Where d?= is the differential solid angle in steradian (sr). The radiation intensity is measured in watts per steradian (W/sr). The average value of is the total radiated power divided by ; that is, (3.6) 3.3 Directive Gain The directive gain of an antenna is a measure of the concentration of the radiated power in a particular direction It can also be regarded as the ability of the antenna to direct radiated power in a given direction. It is usually obtained as the ratio of radiation intensi ty in a given direction to the average radiation intensity, that is (3.7) may also be expressed in terms of directive gain as (3.8) The directive gain depends on antenna pattern. For the hertzian dipole as well as for the half wave dipole is maximum at and minimum at . Hence they radiate power in a direction broadside to their length. For an isotropic antenna, . However, such an antenna is not in reality but an ideality. The directivity D of an antenna is the ratio of the maximum radiation intensity to the average radiation intensity. D is also the maximum directive gain So, (3.9) Or, (3.10) For an isotropic antenna, D=1, which is the smallest value that D can have. For the hertzian dipole, as derived in equation (3.7) For half wave dipole, Where, ?=120 and (3.11) 3.4 Bandwidth (Impedance Bandwidth) By definition Bandwidth of an antenna is the difference between the highest and the lowest operational frequency of the antenna. Mathemati cally, (3.12) If this ratio is 10 to 1, then the antenna I classified as a broadband antenna. Another definition for Bandwidth is: Where, . 3.5 Gain We define that G is the actual gain in power over an ideal isotropic radiator when both are fed with same power. The reference for gain is the input power, not the radiated power. This efficiency is defined as the ratio of the radiated power () to the input power (). The input power is transformed into radiated power and surface wave power while a small portion is dissipated due to conductor and dielectric losses of the materials used. The power gain of the antenna as (3.13) The ratio of the power gain in any specified direction to the directive gain in that direction is referred to as the radiation efficiency of the antenna i.e. (3.14) Antenna gain can also be specified using the total efficiency instead of the radiation efficiency only. This total efficiency is a combination of the radiation efficie ncy and efficiency linked to the impedance matching of the antenna. Hence, from equation 3.14 (3.14(a)) 3.6 Polarization The definition for polarization can be quoted from Balanis  as: Ã¢â¬Å"Polarization of a radiated wave can be expressed as Ã¢â¬Å"that property of an electromagnetic wave describing the time-varying direction and relative magnitude of the electric field vector; specifically, the figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of the vector at a fixed location in space, and in the sense in which it is traced, as observed along the direction of propagation.Ã¢â¬ Polarization then is the curve traced by the end point of the arrow representing the instantaneous electric field. The field must be observed along the direction of propagation.Ã¢â¬ 3.7 Return Loss The Return Loss (RL) is the parameter which indicates the amount of power that is lost to or consumed by the load and is not reflected back as waves are reflected which leads to the formation of standing waves. This occurs when the transmitter and antenna impedance do not match. Hence, the RL is a parameter to indicate how well the matching between the transmitter and antenna has taken place. The RL is given as: (3.15) For perfect matching between the antenna and transmitter, RL = ? and ? = 0 which means no power is being reflected back, whereas a ? = 1 has a RL = 0 dB, which implies that all incident power is reflected. For practical applications a RL of -9.54 dB is acceptable. Chapter 4 Modeling of Half-Wave Dipole Micro Strip Patch Antenna Using XFDTDÃ ® 4.1 Introduction For the purpose of modeling and simulation of antennas we have used modeling softwares, which are widely used in industries. These softwares are specially used for the purpose of electromagnetic (EM) modeling, which refers to the process of modeling the interaction of electromagnetic fields with physical objects and the environment. The first such software bro ught into use is XFDTDÃ ®. It is a three-dimensional full wave electromagnetic solver based on the finite difference time domain method. It is fully three-dimensional.Ã Complex CADÃ ® objects can be imported into XFDTDÃ ® and combining and editing can be done within XFDTDÃ ® using the internal graphical editor. It is a powerful software which offers a lot of options to its users. This software has been initially used for modeling of basic antennas to get familiarity with interface and working of the software. Dipole is one of such basic antennas with a simple structure; as the name suggests dipole antenna consists of two wires on the same axis with a source applied at the center point. In this chapter, we begin with the analysis of a half-wave dipole antenna by derivation of field equations and the MATLABÃ ® plot. After the analysis the modeling is done using XFDTDÃ ®. Finally, all the results are matched by plotting the data in MATLABÃ ®. 4.2 Derivation of Vector Magnetic Potential We begin with the derivation done in chapter 2 for of the radiated fields for a half-wave dipole antenna in equation 3.11 which gives us the following expression for (4.11) 4.2.1 MATLABÃ ® Plots of Half Wave Dipole Antenna The expression can be plotted in MATLABÃ ® using the following code clear all; theta = [0:360]*pi/180; F = cos((pi/2)*cos(theta))./(0.0000001 + sin(theta)); Pn = F./max(F); Pn=abs(Pn); title (POLAR PLOT OF HALF WAVE DIPOLE ) polar(0,1); hold on; polar (theta,Pn,r); The MATLABÃ ® generated plot of normalized electric field for half-wave dipole for above code is as follows Figure 4.1: MATLABÃ ® plot for Normalized Electric Field 4.3 Modeling of Half Wave Dipole Using XFDTDÃ ® 4.3.1 Introduction XFDTDÃ ® is a full wave, 3D, Electromagnetic Analysis Software. XFDTDÃ ® used solid, dimension based modeling to create geometries. To create geometry, library objects and editing functions may be u sed. Modeling of half-wave dipole antenna was carried out in XFDTDÃ ® to test the softwares capability of generating far field radiation pattern. And also to get in depth knowledge of XFDTDÃ ® before using it for the modeling of patch antennas, which is the foremost objective of this project. 4.3.2 Validity of Model As in the previous section the electromagnetic theory of half-wave dipole was studied and its mathematical equations for normalized radiated field was derived and plotted. This plot will be our reference plot while doing the modeling of half-wave dipole. 4.3.3 Modeling of Half Wave Dipole As we know the length of a half-wave dipole antenna should be half the wavelength of the operating carrier wave frequency. Thus the dipole modeled in XFDTDÃ ® has the following specifications: Length of 30cm Frequency used 1 GHz Thin wire was used to create the dipole Source was attached in the middle Figure below shows the geometry of dipole being modeled in XFDTDÃ ®. Figure 4.2: XFDTDÃ ® geometry of Half-Wave Dipole 4.3.4 Results The far fields of dipole antenna were calculated by XFDTDÃ ® and plots were obtained for far field versus both Phi and Theta, as shown in Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4. The results matched with the theoretically established results. Figure 4.3: Far Field vs. Theta Figure 4.4: Far Field vs. Phi 4.3.5 Plotting XFDTDÃ ® Results in MATLABÃ ® The data for far fields from XFDTDÃ ® was exported and matched with the theoretical results in MATLABÃ ® for the purpose of confirming the results. Help was taken from the XFDTDÃ ® reference manual to learn how to export far field data. The XFDTDÃ ® file was copied and the extension was changed to Ã¢â¬Ë.dat and name was changed to Ã¢â¬ËXFTDT.dat Next this file was read by MATLABÃ ® using the MATLABÃ ® code provided [angle1, a1, c1, d1, e1] = textread(XFDTD.dat,%f %f %f %f %f, 361); a ngle1=angle1*pi/180; q=find(c1-9); c1(q)=-9; c1=c1+9; m=max(c1); c1=c1./m; polar(angle1,c1,g) The MATLABÃ ® result is shown n figure below. Figure 4.8: XFDTDÃ ® radiation pattern in MATLABÃ ® The experimentally produced curve qualitatively matches with our theoretical calculations. The shape of the curve is similar to the theoretical description, whereas the scale is different. For the purpose of confirming this result, the data of this curve is also exported into MATLABÃ ® to be compared with previously simulated results. 4.4 Modeling of Micro Strip Patch Antenna Using XFDTDÃ ® 4.4.1 Introduction After gaining confidence on the design of dipole antenna by comparing its results with the simulations and the results obtained from MATLABÃ ®, we use the same computational software for the modeling of micro strip patch antenna. 4.4.2 Validity of Model For the modeling of micro strip patch antenna, a paper of IEEE Ã¢â¬Å"Application of Three -Dimensional Finite-Difference Time Domain Method of the Analysis of Planar Micro strip CircuitsÃ¢â¬ is reproduced. This paper is used as a reference so that the results could be compared in order to check the validity. The result of our exercise confirms the results of the IEEE paper; this takes us to design a micro strip antenna of our desired parameters. This training will help us gain the expertise over the computational software, which can be used for the modeling of multiple different antennas. 4.4.3 Modeling of Micro Strip Patch Antenna The antenna is designed for the frequency range from 0 GHz (dc) to 20 GHz. The dimensions used for the antenna centers it at 7.8 GHz. Although its results at the higher frequencies are also examined for the accuracy, the parameters for the antenna are given below: Duroid substrate is used with =2.2 Thickness is 1/32 inch=0.794mm Length = 12.45mm Width = 16mm Transmission line feed is used and is placed at 2.09mm away from the left corner. With these specifications the center frequency comes out to be 7.8 GHz and this can be verified from the link www.emtalk.com/mpaclac.php Figure 4.5 shows the geometry of micro strip patch modeled in XFDTDÃ ®. Figure 4.5 Geometry of the micro strip patch antenna 4.4.4 Results The S11 plot of micro strip patch antenna was calculated by XFDTDÃ ®, as shown in Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 is the plot of the IEEE paper. This gives us the comparison between the two. Figure 4.6 obtained from the XFDTDÃ ® Figure 4.7: Results of S11 parameters from published IEEE Papers Chapter 5 Micro Strip Antennas 5.1 Introduction These days there are many commercial applications, such as mobile radio and wireless communication, where size, weight, cost, performance, ease of installation, and aerodynamic profiles are constraints and low profile antennas may be required. To meet these requirements micro strip antennas can be used. These are low profile antennas and are conformabl e to planar and non-planar surfaces. These are simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed circuit technology. They are also mechanically robust and can be mounted on rigid surfaces. In addition, micro strip antennas are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, pattern and impedance as explained by Balanis . 5.1.1 Basic Characteristics Micro strip antennas consist of a very thin metallic strip or patch placed a small fraction of a wavelength above a ground plane. The micro strip patch is designed so its pattern maximum is normal to the patch hence making it a broadside radiator. This is accomplished by properly choosing the mode or field configuration of excitation beneath the patch. End-fire radiation can also be accomplished by judicious mode selection. For a rectangular patch, the length L of the element is usually . The conducting micro strip or patch and the ground plane are separated by the substrate (Balanis ). There are numer ous substrates that can be used for the design of micro strip antennas and their dielectric constants are usually in the range of . The substrate that we are using in our designs has a value of 4.6. Often micro strip antennas are also referred to as patch antennas. The radiating elements and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric substrate. The radiating patch may be square, rectangular, thin strip, circular, elliptical, triangular or any other configuration. Arrays of micro strip elements with single or multiple feeds are used to achieve greater directivities. 5.1.2 Feeding Methods There are numerous methods that can be used to feed micro strip antennas. The four most common and popular are the micro strip line, coaxial probe, aperture coupling and proximity coupling. In our designs we have selected coaxial probe as our method of feeding the Micro strip antenna. Following is a brief explanation of coaxial feeding as explained by Balanis . Coaxia l-line feeds, where the inner conductor of the coax is attached to the radiation patch while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane are widely used. The coaxial probe feed is also easy to fabricate and match, and it has low spurious radiation. However is has narrow bandwidth and it is more difficult to model. 5.2 Rectangular Patch The rectangular patch is one of the most widely used configurations of Micro strip antennas. It is very easy to analyze using either the transmission line model or the cavity model, which have higher accuracy for thin substrates as explained by Balanis . In our design we have used transmission line model. A brief description of both these models is given: 5.2.1 Transmission-Line model The transmission line model is the easiest of all but it gives the least accurate results and also lacks versatility. However, it does shed some physical insight into the design of the antenna. In a more basic explanation, the transmission-line mo del represents the micro strip antenna by two slots, separated by a low-impedance transmission line of length L. Figure 5.1: Micro Strip Patch Antenna with line feeding (i) Fringing Effect Because of the finite length and width of patch the field at the edges of the patch undergoes fringing. This is illustrated in the Figure 5.2. The amount of fringing depends on the physical dimensions of the antenna and is a function of the dimensions and the height of the patch. For micro strip antennas, as 1, thus the fringing is reduced. However, it must be taken into account as the resonant frequencies of the antennas are influenced by fringing (Balanis ). Following Figure 5.2 shows the fringing effect along the width of micro strip line. Figure 5.2: Electric field lines along the width of micro strip lines As most of the electric field lines reside in the substrate and parts of some lines exist in air. Because 1 and 1, the electric field lines concentrates mostly in th e substrate. Since some of the waves travel in the air and some in the substrate and effective dielectric constant Ã¢â¬Ë should be introduced. (5.1) (ii) Effective Length, Resonant Frequency, and Effective Width: Because of fringing effects the patch of the micro strip antenna comes out to be greater than its physical dimensions. The dimensions of the patch along its length can be extended on each end by a distance of , which is a function of the effective dielectric constant and the width to the height ratio (W/h). A common approximate relation for the normalized extension of the length is: (5.2) Since the length of the path has now been extended on each side by , the effective length of the patch is now As the resonant frequency of the micro strip antenna is a function of its length. For a good radiator, the practical width that is used to obtain good radiation results is (5.3) where, is the velocity of light. The actual length of the patch can n ow be obtained from (5.4) The above calculations have been followed according to the formulas provided in Balanis . 5.3 Calculations for the Designed Patch: Calculation for the effective width of the patch from (5.3) For using (5.1), Calculations for using equation (5.2), Calculation for L using equation (5.4), 5.4 Modeling of Micro Strip Antennas 5.4.1 Introduction Figure 5.3: Side View of Patch Antenna with Coaxial Feed One of the popular antenna types is patch antenna, which gains its name from the fact that it basically consists of a metal patch suspended over a ground plane. Patch antennas are simple to fabricate and easy to modify and customize. They are closely related to micro strip antennas, which are just patch antennas constructed on a dielectric substrate, usually employing the same sort of lithographic patterning used to fabricate printed circuit boards. The simplest patch antenna uses a half-wavelength-long patch and a larger ground plane. Large ground planes give better performance but of course make the antenna bigger. It isnt uncommon for the ground plane to be only modestly larger than the active patch. The current flow is along the direction of the feed wire, so the vector potential and thus the electric field follow the current, as shown by the arrow in the figure labeled E. A simple patch antenna of this type radiates a linearly polarized wave. The radiation can be regarded as being produced by the Ã¢â¬Å"radiating slots at top and bottom, or equivalently as a result of the current flowing on the patch and the ground plane. 5.5 Modeling of Micro Strip Patch Antenna Using Microwave StudioÃ ® 5.5.1 Introduction Microwave Studio is a specialist tool for the fast accurate simulation of high frequency problems. Figure 5.4: Patch Antenna designed in Microwave StudioÃ ® 5.5.2 Results The same S11 parameters are calculated and compared with the already carried out results, comparison is shown below. It can be seen that as compared to other Antenna Design Simulation software, results generated by Microwave StudioÃ ® are more accurate due to its automatic grid and show more resemblance with the published results. It is assumed that due to the fact that the Microwave StudioÃ ® generates the grid by itself therefore there are less chances of error and it generates more accurate results. Figure 5.5: S11 VS frequency generated by Microwave StudioÃ ® Figure 5.6: S-parameter Polar plot generated by Microwave StudioÃ ® Figure 5.7: S-Parameter Smith Chart generated by Microwave StudioÃ ® Figure 5.8: Far-Field Radiation Pattern generated by Microwave StudioÃ ® 5.6 Designing Micro Strip Antenna 5.6.1 Design parameters Operating frequency = to be tested Polarization = Linear For the choice of printed circuit board we used FR-4 limited because of the unavailability of Teflon, which is not a good choice because of the value. The value of varies from 4 .2 to 4.8. The value of that we have used for calculations and design is 4.6. The thickness of FR-4 PCB is 1.6mm, which again is not a good choice as far as micro strip antennas, is concerned. So, the characteristic of our antenna are: Center frequency (fo): to be seen Dielectric constant (): 4.6 Dielectric thickness (h): 1.6 mm. Polarization = Linear Feeding Method = Probe feed 5.6.2 Fabrication Following steps are followed in the fabrication process: First the micro strip antenna is modeled on any image design software so that it can be printed on film sheet. Then the modeled antenna is printed on a film. The film is used in the etching of PCB (Printed Circuit Board). Next a hole is drilled for providing feed. Finally the connector is attached. 5.7 Results 5.7.1 Calculating the Ideal Feed Point Location The results tabulated below are obtained after varying the feed location along the length of the patch from the origin or center of patch to its right most edge. The coaxial probe feed used is designed to have a radius of 0.5mm. The table below shows the calculated results for different feed locations. By obtaining these results we can locate the ideal feeding point on our micro strip patch antenna, which is the point that yields the maximum, return loss. The feeding point calculated from out results comes out to be 10mm in the horizontal direction. The feed point and results are treated from the method provided in reference . NO Feed Location (x, y) (mm) Center Frequency (GHz) Return Loss(RL) (dB) 1 (4,0) 0.880 -2.74 2 (5,0) 0.880 -4.41 3 (6,0) 0.880 -6.514 4 (7,0) 0.880 -9.186 5 (8,0) 0.880 -12.9 6 (10,0) 0.880 -28.63 Table 5.1 Effect of Feed locations on center frequency and return loss Frequency (GHz) Figure 5.9 Return Loss for feed located at different locations dB Figure 5.10 Magnified view of the above graph Frequency (GHz) dB The above plotted figure shows that as we increase distance of the feed point from the origin in the horizontal x direction the return loss increases and goes to level -25 dB which gives us the ideal feed point location. The magnified view of the figure shows this more clearly. 5.7.2 Obtained Results of the Fabricated Micro Strip Antenna After the fabrication of the designed micro strip patch antenna, the antenna has been tested on the network analyzer available in the lab. The obtained result for the return loss i.e. S11 is displayed below. Figure 5.11 Results obtained from Network Analyzer. Comment: The above figure clearly shows that the designed patch antenna is not resonant on the objective frequency which was 900 MHz Instead it shows better characteristics at frequency of almost 1.44 GHz and 1.83 GHz which were not the objective frequencies under consideration while designing the patch. The diagnosed reason behind such behavior of the antenna was the choice of incorrect relative permittivity () for the substrate material as the material was purchased from the open market. Chapter 6 Conclusion The objective of this project was to gain expertise over the computational electromagnetics and the modeling of antennas. Antennas were modeled by utilizing the commercial softwares. Initially a basic dipole antenna was modeled on XFDTDÃ ® and the results were verified by comparing modeled results with published results using MATLABÃ ®. The next step was taken towards a much difficult and complex antenna i.e. micro strip antenna which was modeled by using both the software as mentioned above (XFDTDÃ ® and Microwave StudioÃ ®). Firstly just for the purpose of getting familiar with the softwares a paper of IEEE was implemented and the results were verified this process was carried out on XFDTDÃ ®. Different kinds of micro strip antennas were modeled in XFDTDÃ ® and Microwave StudioÃ ® and there results were verified either by experimental data or by comparing the simulation with the published results. Later Microwave StudioÃ ® was used to design the micro strip antenna for our desired frequency. After the modeling of the antenna we moved on to the fabrication process. A double sided PCB of fiberglass was used onto which the antenna is made. This fabricated antenna was then tested on the network analyzer to obtain the return loss and then in the antenna testing laboratory. The results were discussed with respect to the predicted results and commented on in the previous chapters. Hence as a result we can justifiably conclude that this project has helped us gain knowledge of computational electromagnetics and the design and fabrication of different types of ante nnas for various purposes and also the testing of the fabricated antennas. Further advancement in this project can be the designing of a micro strip array patch antenna and later enhancing it to Fractal antenna for desired frequencies and the fabrication of the antenna.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Reflection 1 - Building Relationships Over the course of two weeks, I have come to realise the importance of building relationships in a year 1 classroom. These relationships are essential in providing the best possible learning opportunities for the students. Through developing these relationships with students and teachers, I have broadened my knowledge and understanding about the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s individual learning styles, interests and the effect positive acknowledgement has on their participation and motivation levels. When walking in day one, it was my goal to know the name of each individual child by the end of week one. Even in a two week placement, I understood the importance of acknowledging each child by their name. The students responded positively to this action. As a result, the students became friendlier and acknowledged me as a pre-service teacher. Another strategy implemented was positive feedback and engagement in interests. When students were expressing interests and stories, I used positive facial and body gestures to show acknowledgement and interest. Throughout the two week placement, the strategies I have used for building relationships have continued to change and develop. As a result of discussions and seminars I decided in the best interests for the class to try to acknowledge positive behaviour instead of negative. By acknowledging negative and disrespectful behaviour, I would spend a considerable amount of time focusing on those students. StudentsShow MoreRelatedI Have Worked In Education For Ten Years, Eight As An Algebra1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesI have worked in Education for ten years, eight as an Algebra 1 educator and two as an Assistant Principal. I am currently finishing up my third year as an Assistant Principal at New Braunfels High School. 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Question: Discuss about the Current Development in the Healthcare and Pharmaceutical Industry. Anwers: Introduction: The essay gives an overview of the current developments in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry and its effect on various industries in the sector. There is also discussion about how the developments are having an impact on my future prospect as I choose to be a part of the industry. Further, there is discussion about the industry specific megatrends and challenges along with a PESTEL analysis mentioned. However, I have also discussed about the expectations of my employer and my futuristic goals. There is also discussion about the professional values, ethics and social responsibility. Moreover, I have done a socio-cultural, personal, managerial and technical competency assessment about myself. The essay also focuses on a professional development plan and SWOT analysis mentioned. The essay concludes by mentioning the performance indicators mentioned in a tabular format. The Big Picture: If I consider the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry worldwide then one can see a wave of challenge that it is experiencing. The main reasons are the change of demands, increasing expectations of patients, decline of the autonomy physician, cost pressures and consolidation amongst those who are providing the service. Therefore, the particular industry must undertake proactive strategies in order to meet the demanding needs of patients and deal with an increasing number of customers. The Healthcare and Pharmaceutical industry should focus primarily on ensuring positive results related to well being, heath and management of illness optimally among the population targeted (Subramoniam, 2014). However compared to the health systems of other countries, Australia has a healthcare system whose results hold a high rank. Therefore, in terms of healthcare efficiency Australia is at the sixth position in 2014 which was a rank higher than 2013. The Healthcare and Pharmaceutical industry occupied the top position of the Better Life Index that is actually a measure of the social, physical and mental well being of the citizens (Stamatakis, Weiler Ioannidis, 2013). Thus, the remarkable standards of the Australian healthcare system will be beneficial in increasing the life expectancy of the people. As per government records, the average life expectancy of men would increase to 95.1 years and women would rise to 96.6 years by 2055. Thus, the policymakers are also aiming at finding ways that will enable Australia to offer world- class services in healthcare. Though spending from the government and societal perspective remains unsustainable for the time being but policymakers are trying all possible means to make the industry a major contributor to the countrys economy. Thus, the Healthcare and Pharmaceutical industry has not only been a major provider of employment but ranks fifth in contributing to Australian GDP. Thus, I can say that the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry in Australia is a major employment provider so there are ample career opportunities for me with a career choice as a pharmacist. Pharmacists are people with expertise in medicine who optimize outcomes related to health and minimize any misadventure related to medication. The growth in the Australian healthcare sector have encouraged many multinational drug companies to have a set up and thereby have an upcoming surge for pharmacist in areas related to drug information, medical training, and regulatory affairs (Spinewine, Fialov, Byrne, 2012). Industry Specific Mega Trends and Challenges: In recent times, there has been a sustained rise in cost to match up with Australias healthcare system. Thus, four megatrends are responsible for the demand and supply drive of healthcare in Australia. These trends are systemic forces responsible for shaping the future of Australian healthcare system. Further, the forces have the power to disrupt existing business and care models putting across various challenges and opportunities for the system (Gassmann, Reepmeyer von 2013). However, the trends are as described as follows: Improving Productivity through Growing Financial Imperative: There has been a long-term rise in the cost of healthcare that collides with current financial needs. Therefore, the accessibility and the width of the heath care services can be limited if it is mismanaged. Combined effort is thus required to modify the health system into an effective delivery model. Prevalence of Disease and Increase Tendency of Ageing The unhealthy lifestyle is responsible in increasing the rate of patients who are chronically ill. As a result, the heath systems are also finding it difficult to adapt to the changing means. Moreover, there is a strain in the public purses as the aged consume more and contribute less. This trend can however be managed through the increase in access of primary care, encouraging coordination in care and self -management and enhancing better care for chronic diseases. The New Consumer and Digital Health With the emergence of technology healthcare has reached unmatchable levels of analysis, automation and connectivity. Heath providers are now introducing common technologies in providing efficiency and quality services. Thus, consumers now have the power of managing their own health more effectively. Personalized Care and Precision Medicine Over the last decade, there has been a lack in the fulfillment of the promise for precision medicine. However, in the coming years, the advances in the disease heterogeneity and diagnostic technologies may lead to an accelerated impact on health outcomes and clinical practice. Challenges: Now if I speak of challenges then the Australian government may have to confront massive challenges in the delivery and funding of healthcare (Almarsdttir, Kaae Traulsen, 2014). The challenges are as follows: The changes in disease patterns and the increasing chronic illness amongst people have proved to be a challenge for the industry. In addition to this, changes in demography also impose a challenge to the healthcare industry. The need to ensure processes that are transparent, comprehensive and efficient for accessing technologies related to health and at the same time increasing cost of advances in medical science is also posing as a challenge to the government. There are constant problems faced with supply and distribution of the health workforce. The quality and safety of the health services remains an unrelenting concern. There has been uncertainty about balancing the private and public sectors and thereby ensure funding. Lack of recognition for further investment in childrens health There has been a lack of urban planning in promoting sustainable and healthy communities. PESTEL Analysis: The introduction of advanced technology, stringent regulatory controls, distribution channels, new advanced offerings, volatility of investors have questioned the survival of the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry thereby making paving way to a competitive environment. To understand the challenges and threats to the industry let us do a PESTEL analysis. Political Factors: Healthcare is becoming a concern globally because it is becoming increasingly expensive and is leading to a burden financially. Therefore, political attention is also increasing on pharmaceutical companies and regulations are becoming more stringent. Therefore, the healthcare and pharmaceutical sector must act proactively in responding and scanning the environmental policies and should make an effort to cling to corporate compliance and philanthropy and ethics related programs (Sharabati Fuqaha, 2014). Economical Factors: The healthcare and pharmaceutical industry has been a victim of mergers and acquisitions and the late 20 th century has been an evidence to it. The affect of these acquisitions has resulted in further research and thereby ensure a huge and comprehensive portfolio of products for the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry at large (Culverhouse Wohlmuth, 2012). Social Factors: Pharmaceutical companies are inclining to corporate social responsibility where they are increasingly addressing environmental and social concerns. I say this because ensuring good heath is a requirement not only socially but also personally. For instance, many healthcare and pharmaceutical industries have moved forward to provide aid to terminally ill patients suffering from AIDS as a social responsibility. Technological Factors: There has been innovation in technology that has directly influenced the pace of the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries (Doucette et al., 2012). The challenge lies in the fact that the industry must adapt itself to the needs of the market. Therefore, spending on research and environment has increased in order to encourage innovation. The healthcare and pharmaceutical industry must also adapt itself in a way so that it one knows it by the technology that it adopts. Environmental Factors: The increasing environmental agenda are making the key stakeholders of the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry more proactive and aware. In this respect, it is important of the healthcare and pharmaceutical companies to check out whether their business and marketing plans are aligning with the environmental issues. Legal Factors: There are also many legislative and regulatory restrictions imposed on the pharmaceutical industry (Irefin, Abdul-Azeez, Tijani, 2012). Countries have encouraged the litigation culture that has influenced the healthcare and pharmaceutical sector. Moreover, the legislative boundaries are also stretched upon by the emergence of the internet where patients demand are more inclined towards including rights for programs related to healthcare. Goals: In future, I want to see myself as a registered pharmacist working as a part of the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry. In Australia, it is very important for the entire pharmacist to do the registration with the Pharmacy Board of Australia (PBA) (Armour et al., 2013).Therefore, the first expectation of my employer is to get myself registered and abide by the code of conduct that forms the base for the ethical framework so that effective delivery of health services ensured. Therefore, at the first place my employer would want me to provide good care that includes working effectively with clients or patients, ensure shared decision making and working in co-ordination with other practitioners. The employer would also expect me to minimize risk, maintain ethical and professional behavior. Similarly, the clients would want me to take proper care of them, share problems, and understand conversation whenever required. My first priority as a pharmacist would be to get registered and work on ethical ground. Other duties are important to take care of. These include focusing on providing service to the patients for their betterment and remain in a position to overcome any adversity. At the same time, I should stay informed about the whereabouts of the company and ensure collaboration with other pharmacist for discussion on various issues. Then again, I look forward to fight any negative change that threatens my profession and undertake initiative for promoting myself. Professional Values, Ethics and Social Responsibility There are certain codes of ethics that I must follow as a pharmacist. According to the Pharmacy Board of Australia the main area of focus for a pharmacist include certain principles that needs to be followed in relation to the consumer and community, pharmacy and profession, business practice and other healthcare professionals (Rosenthal et al., 2016). From the consumer point of view, as a Pharmacist my first priority would be able to recognize the well being and health of the consumer. In addition to this, I must also respect the privacy and dignity of the consumers that includes respecting their individuality, urge for treatment and any confidentiality (Um, 2014). From the community point of view, I must provide service in a manner so that the community does not lose their respect for the profession. As a member of the community, I must ensure that my contribution to the public health is enhanced through use of quality medicines (Lowres et al., 2014). From Professional point of view, my responsibility lies in further advancing the profession through teaching, mentoring students, training staff, interns and colleagues. Along with this, I must have complete knowledge of the practice that I am doing. Moreover, I prefer to work under conditions that will ensure professional independence. From the business point of view, I believe that the practice done ethically and at the same time must take care in collaborating with other professionals for optimum health outcome Socio-cultural and Personal Competence In order to improve my socio-cultural and personal competence I should develop the ability to deal with people from varied cultural backgrounds in a community. Thus, understanding the cultural framework is very important for pharmacist (Mak, 2013). Managerial and Technical Competence With the emergence of internet and advanced technology, it is essential for a pharmacist to have a sound understanding of the technology used in various medical procedures. Moreover, to continue as a pharmacist in the industry, I must have the self- management skills of prioritizing work in an appropriate manner and able to take responsibility. Moreover, I should also understand the management principles of the organization that I wish to work for in future ( Johnson, 2012). Targets for Development Thus, I can improve my socio-cultural competence by developing a proper mindset that not all people come from same backgrounds. Therefore, while practicing I must not forget that cultural diversity will prevail in a community. Moreover, patients who come from different backgrounds possess different beliefs about medications and medical conditions. As a pharmacist, I must initiate a patient centric approach to understand them and make the ambience conducive and trustworthy so that they can speak out their problems (Lim, Z Anderson McGrath, 2012). Now to develop the management and technical competence I should invest certain amount of time to learn the technicalities involved with the operation of various machines that I might require in future. Although, I am punctual and serious about what I do but since I choose to be in a public service profession so I must work on the time management and develop a personality that increases peoples dependence on me. Proposed Professional Development Program In order to be in a profession as a pharmacist, I decide to develop insert certain self- management skills and at the same time ensure that I understand certain complex technicalities that are a result of the modern technology. I plan to work as a pharmacist so my first target would be to get myself registered with the Pharmacist Board of Australia (PAB) and abide by its code of ethics in performance of my work (Mak, 2013). Competencies are a cluster of commitments, skills, knowledge and abilities necessary for effective job performance. The level of competences however determines the extent to which a person is able posses the skill sets, abilities and knowledge for effective performance (Ghanbari, 2012). Currently I possess competencies in six domain that include personal skills, safe and rational use of medicines, ensuring public health, ethical professional practice, supply of medicines, skill set related to the organization. The definition of the competency target is the key contact for the whole organization done with the help of the reporting tool. In the process, the maximum and minimum targets per competency defined by the key contact, which are then tested by means of the assessment procedure (Fernandez et al., 2012). My learning and development plan includes: Through self-analysis, I can take care of self-management skills that I need to work upon for the time being like punctuality and organizing ability However, for the learning the technicalities I need to undergo certain training programs organized by the company in order to have a sound understanding of the concepts. The culturally competent pharmacists make sure that they expand their cultural resources and knowledge through the adoption of various service models so that they can meet various ethnic and racial groups. Figure1: Improving Cultural Competence. Source: (Powell Sears, 2012) Thus, cultural diversity is common phenomenon in a community. Therefore, as a pharmacist it is very necessary to consider the cultural backgrounds of patients while providing care and counselling. SWOT Analysis The SWOT refers to the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats in the profession of pharmacist (Hatah et al., 2012). The analysis is as follows: Strengths A substantial amount of work experience can act as a positive factor in this field as they allow the pharmacist to deal complex situations. An educated and professional with good technical expertise is also a blessing for the community Weakness For a starter, the profession can be quite a challenging task as it deals with public service Then lack of job knowledge can also act as a negative aspect Opportunities Here, since it is necessary to collaborate with other professionals therefore one can strengthen ones network well The professional also allows us to learn certain technical expertise that gives us an option to use it as and when required. Threats There is cutthroat competition in the field; therefore, it is very difficult to make a mark. After a certain experience in the field, there are certain education and training obstacles. Performance Indicators Figure: Performance Indicators Source: (Moullin et al., 2013) Conclusion: The essay concludes by giving a close look at the performance indicators. There is SWOT analyses and personal development plan laid out with stress on various competency.. There is discussion on the goals that I have as a pharmacist and how I plan to develop. Moreover, I have done a PESTEL analysis of the industry chosen and the challenges and megatrends of that industry. There is also a brief overview of the present scenario of the industry and its impact on my profession. References: Almarsdttir, A. B., Kaae, S., Traulsen, J. M. (2014). Opportunities and challenges in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice research. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 10(1), 252-255. Armour, C. L., Reddel, H. K., Lemay, K. S., Saini, B., Smith, L. D., Bosnic-Anticevich, S. Z., ... Stewart, K. (2013). Feasibility and effectiveness of an evidence-based asthma service in Australian community pharmacies: a pragmatic cluster randomized trial. Journal of Asthma, 50(3), 302-309. Culverhouse, S. E., Wohlmuth, H. (2012). Factors affecting pharmacists recommendation of complementary medicinesa qualitative pilot study of Australian pharmacists. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 12(1), 183. Doucette, W. R., Nevins, J. C., Gaither, C., Kreling, D. H., Mott, D. A., Pedersen, C. A., Schommer, J. C. (2012). Organizational factors influencing pharmacy practice change. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 8(4), 274-284. Fernandez, N., Dory, V., Ste?Marie, L. G., Chaput, M., Charlin, B., Boucher, A. (2012). Varying conceptions of competence: an analysis of how health sciences educators define competence. Medical education, 46(4), 357-365. Gassmann, O., Reepmeyer, G., von Zedtwitz, M. (2013). Leading pharmaceutical innovation: Trends and drivers for growth in the pharmaceutical industry. Springer Science Business Media. Ghanbari, S. A. (2012). Competency-based learning. In Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 668-671). Springer US. Hatah, E., Braund, R., Duffull, S., Tordoff, J. (2012). General practitioners perceptions of pharmacists new services in New Zealand. International journal of clinical pharmacy, 34(2), 364-373. Irefin, I. A., Abdul-Azeez, I. A., Tijani, A. A. (2012). An investigative study of the factors affecting the adoption of information and communication technology in small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 2(2), 1. Johnson, M., Cowin, L. S., Wilson, I., Young, H. (2012). Professional identity and nursing: contemporary theoretical developments and future research challenges. International nursing review, 59(4), 562-569. Lim, Z., Anderson, C., McGrath, S. (2012). Professional skills development in a resource-poor setting: the case of pharmacy in Malawi. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(5), 654-664. Lowres, N., Neubeck, L., Salkeld, G., Krass, I., McLachlan, A. J., Redfern, J., ... Wallenhorst, C. (2014). Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of stroke prevention through community screening for atrial fibrillation using iPhone ECG in pharmacies. The SEARCH-AF study. Thromb Haemost, 111(6), 1167-76. Mak, V. S., March, G. J., Clark, A., Gilbert, A. L. (2013). Why do Australian registered pharmacists leave the profession? a qualitative study. International journal of clinical pharmacy, 35(1), 129-137. Mak, V. S., March, G. J., Clark, A., Gilbert, A. L. (2013). Why do Australian registered pharmacists leave the profession? a qualitative study. International journal of clinical pharmacy, 35(1), 129-137. Moullin, J. C., Sabater-Hernndez, D., Fernandez-Llimos, F., Benrimoj, S. I. (2013). Defining professional pharmacy services in community pharmacy. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 9(6), 989-995. Powell Sears, K. (2012). Improving cultural competence education: the utility of an intersectional framework. Medical Education, 46(6), 545-551. Rosenthal, M., Tsao, N. W., Tsuyuki, R. T., Marra, C. A. (2016). Identifying relationships between the professional culture of pharmacy, pharmacists' personality traits, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 12(1), 56-67. Sharabati, A. A. A., Fuqaha, S. J. (2014). The Impact of Strategic Management on the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Organizations' Business Performance. International Review of Management and Business Research, 3(2), 668. Spinewine, A., Fialov, D., Byrne, S. (2012). The role of the pharmacist in optimizing pharmacotherapy in older people. Drugs aging, 29(6), 495-510. Stamatakis, E., Weiler, R., Ioannidis, J. (2013). Undue industry influences that distort healthcare research, strategy, expenditure and practice: a review. European journal of clinical investigation, 43(5), 469-475. Subramoniam, A. (2014). Present scenario, challenges and future perspectives in plant based medicine development. Ann. Phytomed, 3(1), 31-36. Um, I. S., Armour, C., Krass, I., Gill, T., Chaar, B. B. (2014). Consumer perspectives about weight management services in a community pharmacy setting in NSW, Australia. Health Expectations, 17(4), 579-592.
Tuesday, April 21, 2020
Essay, Research Paper The Life And Death of Gaius Julius Caesar In my sentiment, no other adult male in the history of the universe symbolizes military and political strength every bit much as Julius Caesar does. Caesar was born on July 12, 100 BC in Rome, Italy ( Encarta 2000 ) . His male parent belonged to the esteemed Julian kin ( Internet Explorer ) His uncle by matrimony was Gaius Marius, leader of the Populares which supported agricultural reform and opposed the Optimates ( Comptons Encyclopedia ) . Marius saw to it that Julius Caesar was appointed flamen dialis which is a antediluvian priesthood with no power. Caesar # 8217 ; s matrimony in 84 BC to Cornelia, the girl of Marius # 8217 ; s associate was a political Match ( Lindsay Salo ) . When Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Marius # 8217 ; s enemy and leader of the Optimates, was made dictator in 82 BC, he issued a list of enemies to be executed. Caesar was non harmed but he was ordered by Sulla to disassociate Cornelia. We will write a custom essay sample on The Life And Death Of Julius Caesar or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Caesar refused that order and left Rome to fall in the ground forces ( Lindsay Salo ) ( Comptons Encyclopedia ) . This was the beginning of an amazing military calling. He became 2nd in bid of the state Asia ( Turkey ) ( Lindsay Salo ) . In two old ages he proved his courage and superior accomplishments at weaponries. After these old ages and Sulla # 8217 ; s surrender in 78 BC, Julius decided to return to Rome. There he served as an officer in Crassus # 8217 ; s ground forces against Spartacus, Caesar climbed steadily in the authorities by functioning as an functionary in many states ( Internet Explorer ) . After the decease of his married woman Cornelia, Julius remarried a affluent married woman and allied with Crassus, who was the richest adult male in Rome at the clip ( Internet Explorer ) . Their opposition was Pompeius Magnus ( the Great ) . Caesar wanted to go portion of the consulate. The consulate was a governmental place where two consuls, nominated each twelvemonth, held the power of the province. Caesar was trusting that he and Crassus would go the powerful consuls of the Roman Empire. However, the Senate tried to halt his attempts by opposing Crassus, Pompeius and Caesar against each other. Caesar noticed this and did something believed impossible. Julius created an confederation among himself, Crassus, and Pompeius ( Encarta 2000 ) . The confederation made it possible for them all to portion power. This three manner consulship was called a Triumvirate ( Internet Explorer ) . This understanding dictated the Roman policy for the following decennary. They shared all offices between them and their followings and that # 8217 ; s the manner Caesar became Governor of Gaul Transalpinia ( Encarta 2000 ) . He had three hosts ( 15,000 work forces ) under his bid. Julius Caesar so marched into Celtic Gaul, defeated the Helvetii, and forced them to return to their place ( Encarta 200 ) . Following, he crushed Germanic forces under Ariovistus and farther proved his excellent leading. Julius Caesar now turned his head wholly on political relations. In 51 BC, while still contending some immune kins, he proposed to the Senate to widen his governor-ship for another two old ages, which allowed him to run for consul in the twelvemonth 48 BC ( A consul could merely go consul once more after 10 old ages ) . He said that he earned it based on his presentations in Gaul and referred to Pompeius whose governor ship in Spain had been extended the twelvemonth earlier. But the senate hesitated. In the twelvemonth 50 BC, Caesar still tried to widen his governor ship, but to guarantee the trueness of his ground forces he doubled their wage. Other immense amounts went into public financess and the creative activity of his ain Ag coins: # 8220 ; CAE # 8221 ; on one side and # 8220 ; SAR # 8221 ; on the other, and a kneeling Vercingetorix before him ( Encarta 2000 ) . The two consuls of 50 BC were hostile to him, but he managed to corrupt one of them. This caused a deadlock in the Senate. Then, tardily in the autumn, the senate decide that Caesar and Pompeius were to release control of their ground forcess and states. Caesar # 8217 ; s followings tried to blackball it, but the hostile consul ordered Pompeius to support the Republic with two Hosts at Capua and the authorization to raise more. Caesar thereupon gathered his ain ground forcess and went south. Both commanding officers were still on speech production footings and Caesar made another proposal. The proposal was that he would release control of all but two of his hosts and The state of Cisalpine Gaul ( the portion of Gaul lying in Italy ) . Pompeius agreed, but the senate ordered him to wait. Caesar so made an ultimatum. Julius summed up his services to the province and demanded that he could maintain his hosts and states till he was elected consul. In January 49 BC Mark Anthony, Caesar # 8217 ; s trusted lieutenant, demanded that the ultimatum he read aloud in the senate. Although the bulk would hold swayed for peace, the oppositions of Caesar would let no via medias and bullied all the scared senators that Caesar should disband his ground forcess or be declared enemy of the province. The Senate so stripped Julius of all his offices and the Republic declared war on him. Julius Caesar # 8217 ; s reaction to this was on January 11. He led his individual host, which he had assembled, across the span over a little watercourse that marked the boundary between his state and the Roman fatherland. This topographic point was the Rubicon. Pompeius tried to halt Caesar, but all was in vain. No 1 dared to stand up against Caesar # 8217 ; s superior veteran soldiers. The senate and Pompeius were now panic stricken and left Italy to head toward Albania, without taking the exchequer with them. Once in Rome, Caesar wasted no clip. Against no effectual resistance, he assembled a stopgap senate, took control of the authorities and broke unfastened the exchequer. Mark Anthony was put in charge of the Italian hosts and Caesar himself went to the independent metropolis of Massilia. He could non capture the metropolis, but he went to Spain and crushed Pompeius followings. When Caesar returned to Massilia, he was clement and did non plunder the metropolis, but it was no longer independent. He returned to Rome as a master, but at that place was still Pompeius and the old senate. Pompeius himself had raised a monolithic ground forces in Macedonia. Caesar lacked a navy and was forced to set down in Yugoslavia with merely 20,000 work forces ( 7 under powered hosts ) . Although Julius was mostly outnumbered, he and Mark Anthony were winning over Pompeius. What happened was really uneven. Queerly Pompeius withdrew his ground forces and Caesar remarked # 8220 ; Today the enemy would hold won, if they had a commanding officer who was a winner. # 8221 ; Caesar now chased after Pompeius towards Pharsalus. Here Caesar # 8217 ; s 32,000 faced Pompeius 43,000. It was traveling to be the largest struggle of the civil war over the Roman Empire. On a forenoon in early August both ground forcess attacked. Caesar # 8217 ; s left and halfway held strong, while his right withdrew. Pompeius, detecting Caesar # 8217 ; s weak side headed his horse in the spread, but Caesar intelligently sent in his last modesty, and Pompeius lines merely collapsed. Nineteen months after the crossing of the Rubico Caesar became dictator and maestro of the Roman Empire. The defeated Pompeius now fled to Egypt but was killed one time there by his ain work forces ( Encarta 2000 ) . Although he had to stamp out several rebellions, in 46 BC Caesar eventually could present four Triumph parades for his triumphs. Caesar is believed to hold been merely 26 old ages old at the clip. Caesar was now the swayer of the Roman Empire and the senate declared him dictator for life. As a swayer, Caesar instituted assorted reforms. In states, he eliminated the extremely corrupt revenue enhancement system, extended Roman citizenship, and sponsored settlements of veterans. Besides Caesar # 8217 ; s reform of the calendar gave Rome a rational agencies of recording clip which was really of import ( Encarta 2000 ) . However, a figure of senatorial households felt that Caesar threatened their place. Thus, on the 6th of March 44 BC, the so called Idess of March, Caesar was murdered by Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius, and his two trusted commanding officers of his old hosts Decimus Brutus and Gaius Trebonius ( Encarta 2000 ) . Caesar was stabbed 23 times. While the blood poured out of his hurt organic structure the great dictator of Rome mutely pulled his toga over his caput and fell at the pes of a statue of Pompeius ( Internet Explorer ) . In decision, Julius Caesar was likely the greatest adult male of his clip and the most successful. It was Caesar who ended the Roman democracy and paved the manner for the ulterior Roman emperors ( Encarta 2000 ) . From his early life to his decease no other adult male accomplished every bit much as he did. Julius Caesar in my sentiment was the greatest soldier and dictator of all clip. By Vince Henecker Bibliography 1. Compton # 8217 ; s Encyclopedia 2. Encarta 2000 3. Internet Explorer 4. Lindsay Salo 34d
Monday, March 16, 2020
High School Courses Needed for Chemistry Degree What special courses do you need to take in high school so that you can get a college degree in chemistry or chemical engineering? Basically, it boils down to science and math. You can talk with your guidance counselor and teachers for more information. Also, always feel free to contact the department chair in the college program that interests you to get more detailed advice. College catalogs are also a good source for learning about requirements. Algebra Understand ratios, direct proportions, and inverse proportion.Solve linear and simple nonlinear equations.Set up word problems.Identify dependent and independent variables.Understand the slope and intercept of a line.Be able to graph data points.Understand exponentials and scientific notation. Geometry Geometry is critical in understanding college-levelÃ chemistry. Youll need this to understand bonding, molecular models, and crystal structures. Trigonometry Youll need trig for much the same reason as you need geometry. Plus, trig is essential for completing physics. Pre-Calculus Calculus is perhaps the most important math subject to take in high school for a future in the sciences. It may also help you place out of pre-requisites! You have a lot of calculus in your future. Hope you enjoy it! Physics Physics and chemistry are inseparable. If you major in chemistry, youll still take college physics. If you major in physics, youll take chemistry. Chemistry In addition to making college chemistry a bit easier, high school chemistry gives you a taste of what the science is all about. Be sure to master these concepts: Be able to define atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds.Be familiar with the periodic table and know the symbols of common elements.Understand how to read a chemical formula (e.g., H2O).Know what a mole us. In addition to this list, its a good idea to be proficient with a computer and keyboard. Statistics and biology are also useful courses, although your schedule probably wont allow you to take everything you want!
Friday, February 28, 2020
The world economy is in turmoil. Supermarkets are no different, as we discovered during the year - Essay Example Retailers are in a position to exploit buyer power to distort competition. However, many retailers have had to change their offers and strategies in the face of the current economic turmoil. Grocery retail is the largest retail sector in the UK and four large retailers - Tesco, Sainsbury, Asda and Morrison/Safeway dominate the national market (Dobson, 2006). These four supermarket retailers have primarily positioned themselves as Ã¢â¬Å"one stop shopsÃ¢â¬ , and they offer a wide range of goods. Waitrose falls under the smaller supermarket chains along with Marks & SpencerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Somerfield and Booths. Then there are the discounters such as Aldi. Supermarkets dominate the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s food system as food groceries are sold through a handful of retailers (EAFL, 2008). The supermarkets are more likely to be affected by the recent economic turmoil because they are dependent on banks and other financial institution for their capital whereas the smaller retailers are much less dependent on external capital (EAFL, 2008). This is the reason they are much more resilient in the face of economic turmoil. While some face losses due to financial recession others reap benefits. Due to recent financial turmoil the discounters have seen their customer numbers increase and their profits rise as the large supermarket chains have seen a reduction in profits (The Money Stop, 2009). The reason cited is that consumers are trying to save money by shopping at discount stores. The discount supermarket stores have benefited from the economic turmoil because the rising inflation has prompted the shoppers to trade down and choose cheaper stores and brands (Finch & Wearden, 2008). Customer is the focus of any strategy by any retailer and Tesco says they listen to what the customers want during the period of economic recession (BEN Rooth, 2008). They recognize that this is the most important time to recognize the needs of the customers because food is something that cannot be given up